Drug addiction research paper

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Stimulants produce behavioral excitation, increased motor activity, and increased alertness by enhancing excitation at neuronal synapses.When activated by adenosine, receptors located on presynaptic terminals inhibit spontaneous and stimulated neurotransmitter release.View Drug Addiction Research Papers on Academia.edu for free.Regarding withdrawal syndrome, as the stimulatory CNS effects of cocaine subside, the user experiences depression, anxiety, lingering sleepiness, boredom, reduced motivation, and an intense craving for the drug.Furthermore, poppy seeds and cough syrups contain ingredients that metabolize and test positive for opiate metabolites.

Drug abuse, which also can occur with licit and illicit drugs, refers here to use of a psychoactive substance to the extent that it produces some sort of physical, cognitive, behavioral, or social impairment.A common target site of psychoactive drugs is the postsynaptic receptors where neurotransmitters bind.Neurons produce neurotransmitters that are stored in vesicles within the terminal buttons.View this research paper on Social Problem of Drug Addiction.Long-term chronic use of methamphetamines is particular neurotoxic, leading to irreversible brain damage and psychosis.The other 5 percent is excreted unchanged mostly through breath (hence the use of Breathalyzers to estimate alcohol concentration).

When more metabolism than absorption is occurring, the concentration of drug in the blood begins to decline, depicted as the descending portion of the blood concentration.This paper presents a social research assignment about effects of drug addiction.Recent technological advances have allowed scientists to isolate the unique subtypes of receptor proteins, such that they can produce large quantities of each of the specific receptor proteins and then test the affinity of new drugs at each of the receptor subtypes.People use psychoactive drugs for medicinal and recreational reasons.Reserpine, occasionally used to treat high blood pressure, interferes with the transporter molecules that fill vesicles with neurotransmitters, thereby leaving the vesicles empty with no neurotransmitter available for release.It takes the body from several days to several weeks to readjust to the absence of a previously administered drug that has produced dependence.

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Psychoactive drugs administered directly into the brain will have the most rapid effects because they will reach their CNS sites of action most quickly.

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Additionally, caffeine augments brainstem reflexes, enhances some visual processing, improves reaction time and self-reported alertness, reduces the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on psychomotor performance, increases wakefulness, and produces insomnia.Morphine is an agonist at Mu receptors located in several brain areas including the nucleus accumbens (addiction and abuse), thalamus, striatum, and brainstem (respiratory depression, nausea and vomiting), in the spinal cord (analgesia), and periphery.A narrow definition of the term addiction refers to habitual psychological and physiological dependence on a substance.Because ethanol causes blood vessels in skin to dilate, persons with white skin appear flushed.The crack user inhales the vapors as the rock heats and makes a crackling sound.

Water excretion in urine increases (diuretic) as the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) rises, and water is retained (antidiuretic) as the BAC declines, causing swelling in the extremities.Finally, cross-tolerance is tolerance that occurs to one specific drug and subsequently tolerance occurs to the first administration of a different drug.Cocaine is an extremely addictive psychostimulant that in low to moderate doses produces euphoria and increases alertness, mental acuity, self-consciousness, talkativeness, and motor behavior.Orally consumed caffeine is absorbed in the stomach and mostly intestines, with peak blood levels occurring at 30 to 60 minutes.Rates of absorption via other routes of administration are somewhere between those of inhalation and oral administration, depending somewhat on the availability of capillaries at the site of administration.In other words, to determine dependence requires one to stop taking the drug.

Most of the information about how drugs make a person feel come from self-reports of licit and illicit users of drugs, whereas most of the data about how the body affects drugs and how drugs work in the brain comes from well-controlled experimental studies using nonhuman animals.Prolonged use of MDMA results in serotonergic neurotoxicity, and can lead to long-term verbal and visual memory loss.Often drugs work by either mimicking or blocking the actions of one or more neurotransmitters in the CNS.Usually the first thing that comes to mind when you hear the word is drugs, but alcohol.Currently, U.S. federal law categorizes cocaine as a Schedule II drug (high potential for abuse and dependence, but has currently accepted medicinal use with strict restrictions).After drinking coffee daily for a few weeks, it may take two or three cups of caffeinated coffee to feel that same excitation.The vesicles that house neurotransmitters also can be the target site of drugs.However, there are general symptoms and signs that are exhibited by users of most drugs.Increased repetitive movements (stereotypy in laboratory rats) and behaviors (punding in humans) to the exclusion of eating, grooming, and sleeping are probably due to amphetamine stimulation in the nigrostriatal dopamine system.

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Research Paper About Drug Addiction - drugabusehome.com

Drug consumption is one of the most discussed and analyzed topics in the literature and scientific.Other physiological effects of opiate use include constricted pupils, histamine-induced red eyes and itching, lowered blood pressure, constipation, cough suppression, nausea and vomiting, and changes in the immune system.

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Urine tests detect the opiates as well as their metabolites, and therefore are not useful in determining the exact form of the drug used.

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All countries especially, the western countries are struggling to solve this problem.Drug abuse is becoming a major social problem everywhere in the world at present.When inhaled, nicotine in cigarette smoke particles (tar) is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream via the capillaries lining the lungs.

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This 8 page paper considers the historical realities of alcohol abuse in the Mexican American community and the implications of this problem.

Stimulants vary greatly in the degree to which they affect behavior and in their potential for dependence and abuse.

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Provided the psychoactive drugs administered directly into the bloodstream can pass the BBB, they will reach their CNS sites of action relatively quickly.THC easily crosses the BBB and placenta barrier, and collects in fatty parts of the body.